Synthesis and Characterization of Co-Doped Fly Ash Catalyst for Chalcone Synthesis

U.G. Ghoshir1, S.R. Kande1, G.G. Muley2 and A.B. Gambhire3,*

1Department of Chemistry, New Arts, Commerce and Science College, Ahmednagar-414001, India

2Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati Univeristy, Amravati-444602, India

3Department of Chemistry, Shri Anand College, Pathardi-414102, India

*Corresponding author: Fax: +91 2428 223033; Tel: +91 2428 222736; E-mail: abg_chem@ymail.com

Abstract

A series of solid base fly ash hybrid materials were synthesized by doping alkali, alkaline earth metals with nitrogen, separately using co-precipitation process, combined with surfactant incorporating method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Results revealed that the co-doped hybrid materials are highly stable with particle size in the range of 40-60 nm. The surface basicity of fly ash was upraised by increased hydroxyl content by doping with alkali, alkaline earth metals with nitrogen. The basicity of hybrid material was measured by liquid phase, solvent free, single step condensation of 4-chlorobenzaldehyde and acetophenone giving higher conversion rate and selectivity of desired product chalcone. This conversion showed that the fly ash based hybrid material has sufficient basic site, responsible for the catalytic activity.

Keywords

Chalcone, Co-doped fly ash, Solid base catalyst.

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