Aqueous Solubility Enhancement and Desorption of Sudan III Dye from Contaminated Soil Using Plant Based Natural Surfactant

M.C. Somasekhara Reddy1,2,*, K. Sridevi1,3, S.M. Sarvar Jahan1 and G.V. Subba Reddy3

1Department of Basic Sciences, G.P.R. Engineering College (Autonomous), Kurnool-518007, India

2Section of Chemistry, Department of Education in Science and Mathematics (DESM), Regional Institute of Education (RIE), Mysore-570006, India

3Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Engineering College, Pulivendula-516390, India

*Corresponding author: E-mail:;


A plant based natural surfactant was extracted from fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi, commonly known as soap nuts. The natural surfactant was used for the treatment of the soils which were contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds like organic dye, Sudan III and the dye was removed/recovered from the soils. This biosurfactant has great advantages when used in environmental remediation as it is environment friendly in nature. Using a simple water extraction of fruit pericarp powder, the natural surfactant was prepared. The natural surfactant solutions were employed to enhance the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic organic compounds like organic dye, Sudan III and to desorb organic dye Sudan III from contaminated soils in batch experiments. The performance of natural surfactant for the removal of Sudan III was compared with that of commercial surfactants like sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (anionic surfactant), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (cationic surfactant) and Triton X-100 (TX 100) (non-ionic surfactant). The aqueous solubility enhancement of Sudan III dye in presence of 0.04 M of NaCl was increased in case of non-ionic surfactants like natural surfactant (NS) and TX 100. The solubility of Sudan III dye in presence of 0.04 M of NaCl was decreased in case of ionic surfactants like SDS and CTAB. The desorption behaviour observed for natural surfactant was similar to TX 100 solutions. The natural surfactant solution performance was more or less similar to synthetic surfactants and the removal capacity of surfactant was given in increasing order as TX 100 > Natural surfactant > SDS > CTAB.


Plant-based surfactant, Natural surfactant, Soil contamination, Dyes, Sudan III, Desorption, Solubility.

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