Different Techniques for Separation of Brackish Water

Anshika Rani1, S. Suresh1,* and Anil kumar2

1Biochemical and Energy Engineering Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462003, India

2Energy Centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462003, India

*Corresponding author: E-mail: sureshpecchem@gmail.com; amitansh2106@gmail.com

Abstract

The lack of water is usually depicted in volumetric or absolute terms. The most scarcity studies focus on how the 'problem' of scarcity is raised, therefore to overcome this issue the first step is heating of an air stream by using solar energy for heating of an air stream and in the next step to seawater adding into the hot air in imperative to moisten, then final step is a humid air cooling providing potable water as a condensate. The conventional technique for seawater desalination is to vapourize salty water and afterward condense the rising vapour being free of salt. Using fossil fuels as an energy source, these desalination plants are planned as multi-stage evaporator plants. This technique is the foundation for a day-to-day production of million cubic meters of water. This review is focused on the performance analysis of different techniques such as multistage flash distillation, multi-effect distillation, vapourcompression distillation, solar humidification, electrodialysis reversal, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, forward osmosis, solar desalination for separation of brackish water. Based on literature discussion with their remarks from different techniques, solar desalination has achieved 87 % of efficiency and lower the total dissolved solids content as 40 ppm. Moreover, cost of distilled water per liter $ 0.029 from solar desalination plant. With this advantages, solar desalination has more attractive technique while compare to other towards better future and balanced eco-system.

Keywords

Desalination, Brackish water, Multi-effect distillation, Humidificationdehumidification, Membrane distillation.

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