Analysis and Cloud Point Extraction of Trace Copper(II) in Urine of Occupational Workers

Mouyed Khudhair Hassan and Ahmed Fadhil Khudhair*

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq

*Corresponding author: E-mail:;


For pre-concentration, cloud-point extraction method is used to extract and determine the trace amount of copper element present in urine samples and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry techniques, when copper reacted with salicylaldoxime by using Triton X-114 as non-ionic surfactant to form the complex. The most important factors studied in present work are the order of additions, pH values, the concentration of salicylaldoxime, temperature and appropriate time of extraction process. Other factors studied were the effect of types and concentration of Triton X-114 as non-ionic surfactant. The scatter curve was in the range of 0.50-16.00 μg/L with r2 = 0.9979 for UV-visible spectrophotometer (λmax = 380 nm). The LOD was 0.103 μg/L. The RSD for six replicates was found to be 4.917 %. This method was applied successfully to determine copper(II) contents in 44 urine samples of occupational workers.


Cloud point extraction, Copper, Triton X-114, Urine samples

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