Assessment of Ground Water Contamination by Inorganic Impurities in Ferozepur District of Punjab State, India

Gurjeet Kaur1, Sangeeta Sharma1,* and Umesh Kumar Garg2

1Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus, Ferozepur-152001, India

2Guru Teg Bahudar Khalsa College of Information Technology, Chhapianwali, Malout-152107, India

*Corresponding author: E-mail:


Malwa region of Punjab state, India has become the center of water borne diseases due to excessive use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, heavy metals, industrial toxins that cause toxicity in water. The main contamination in ground water is by physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals i.e. pH, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, chlorides, fluorides, arsenic and lead. The contamination of ground water with heavy metals causes health hazards to humans and animals. Due to lack of adequate facilities and resources for the management and handling of waste, the ground water contamination has been increased. In the present study, assessment of ground water quality was carried out in the villages of Ferozepur district of Punjab state, India. With main emphasis on analyzing the groundwater parameters of Ferozepur district which are responsible for health hazard to humans and animals. Various groundwater samples were collected randomly from the villages of Ferozepur district and analyzed for pH, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, chlorides, fluorides, heavy metals (arsenic and lead) using standard procedures. The concentrations of calcium, chlorides, fluorides and pH were within the permissible limits, whereas, alkalinity and total hardness were observed beyond permissible limits in most of the water samples. Even among majority of the samples taken, the concentration of arsenic and lead was found within the permissible limits. Results showed that the ground water samples collected from depth ranging from 100 to 360 ft, recorded values within permissible limits for drinking purpose as prescribed by WHO. Further, ANOVA has been applied on analysis results to study the effect of pH on fluoride and chloride, depth on fluoride and chloride and depth on arsenic and lead. Also, to adjudge the overall quality of water in Ferozepur district, the water quality index (WQI) has been calculated on the basis of large number of physico-chemical characteristics of water. The water quality index of ground water in Ferozepur district has been calculated to be 107. The value is close to 100 so the quality of ground water in Ferozepur district can be categorized under 'Good Quality' water.


Groundwater, Water quality index, Contamination, Inorganic pollutants.

   View Article PDF File Under a Creative Commons License