Assessment of Biological Contaminants in Energy Stimulating Herbal Medicines Collected from Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Rausan Zamir1,*, Nazmul Islam2,3, Mehdi Hasan1, Mahmudul Hasan3, Ali Asraf1, M. Zakaria1 and M.B.H. Howlader1

1Department of Chemistry, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh

2Department of General Educational Development, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore, Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: E-mail:


Ubiquitous nature of erectile dysfunction (ED) has placed it as one of the most rampant health care problem and therefore consumption of energy stimulating herbal medicines (ESHMs) has increased in Bangladesh. However, these herbal medicines reaching consumers without maintaining proper screening procedure, which bring a threat to public health safety. An analysis of biological contaminants (microbial load) of these herbal medicines available in Bangladesh was investigated. In most of samples, the total bacterial counts (TBC) 6 × 107 − 32 × 1011 cfu/mL and lactobacillus count 6 × 108 − 12 × 1011 cfu/mL exceed the maximum value as percribed by WHO.


Erectile dysfunction, Herbal medicines, Drug safety, Microbial diversity, WHO Guidelines.

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