Annonaine an Alkaloid from the Leaves of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa): A Comprehensive Review on its Phytochemicals and Pharmacological Activities: A Review

S. Dash*,, B. Kar*,, N. Sahoo and G. Pattnaik

School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Khurda-752050, India

*Corresponding authors: E-mail: sdash1983@gmail.com; biswakanth.kar@cutm.ac.in

Abstract

Annona squamosa is most widely distributed in tropical and subtropical region native to tropical America comes under the Annonaceae family. It is a widely used tree having edible fruits called as custard apple which is eatable. Annona squamosa plant also contains 35-42 mg/100 g of vitamin C and significant value of nutrient like thiamine, amino acid, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium and dietary fibers. It also contains the phytoconstituents like diterpenes, alkaloids, cyclopeptides and annonaceous acetogenins proved by phytochemistry investigations. The plant Annona squamosa show a number of pharmacological activities like insecticidal, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antimalarial, analgesic and wound healing activity. The vermicidal effect of leaves is responsible for the treatment of tumors, wounds and other skin infections. A number of alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of plant. Most of them belong to aporphine group of alkaloids. Among all the phytoconstituents an alkaloid Annonaine, plays a vital role for its biological activity. The present review represents the phytochemical constituents, biological action, traditional as well as medicinal uses of Annona squamosa. Sugar apple might be the better explored plant part used in treatment of many disorders and the present critical study will hopefully provide a disease free and healthy life to the human society.

Keywords

Annona squamosa, Traditional medicine, Phytochemicals, Alkaloid annonaine, Pharmacological activity.

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